When is Born Mickey Mouse?
Mickey Mouse is a funny animal cartoon character and the mascot of The Walt Disney Company. He was created by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks at the Walt Disney Studios in 1928. An anthropomorphic mouse who typically wears red shorts, large yellow shoes, and white gloves, Mickey is one of the world's most recognizable characters. Created as a replacement for a prior Disney character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Mickey first appeared in the short Plane Crazy, debuting publicly in the short film Steamboat Willie (1928), one of the first sound cartoons. He went on to appear in over 130 films, including The Band Concert (1935), Brave Little Tailor (1938), and Fantasia (1940). Mickey appeared primarily in short films, but also occasionally in feature-length films. Ten of Mickey's cartoons were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film, one of which, Lend a Paw, won the award in 1942. In 1978, Mickey became the first cartoon character to have a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Beginning in 1930, Mickey has also been featured extensively as a comic strip character. His self-titled newspaper strip, drawn primarily by Floyd Gottfredson, ran for 45 years. Mickey has also appeared in comic books such as Disney Italy's Topolino, MM - Mickey Mouse Mystery Magazine, and Wizards of Mickey, and in television series such as The Mickey Mouse Club (1955–1996) and others. He also appears in other media such as video games as well as merchandising and is a meetable character at the Disney parks. Mickey generally appears alongside his girlfriend Minnie Mouse, his pet dog Pluto, his friends Donald Duck and Goofy, and his nemesis Pete, among others (see Mickey Mouse universe). Though originally characterized as a cheeky lovable rogue, Mickey was rebranded over time as a nice guy, usually seen as an honest and bodacious hero. In 2009, Disney began to rebrand the character again by putting less emphasis on his friendly, well-meaning persona and reintroducing the more menacing and stubborn sides of his personality, beginning with the video game Epic Mickey. In August 2018, ABC television announced a two-hour prime time special, Mickey's 90th spectacular, in honor of Mickey's 90th birthday. On November 18, 2018 "Mickey Mouse 90th Anniversary" was celebrated around the World.
Production by country
United States and United Kingdom
The first Disney comics appeared in daily newspapers, syndicated by King Features with production done in-house by a Disney comic strip department at the studio. The Mickey Mouse daily comic strip began on January 13, 1930, featuring Mickey as an optimistic, adventure-seeking young mouse. It was initially written by Walt Disney (who early in his career had aspirations to be a comic strip creator, attempting without success to sell a strip titled Mr. George's Wife) with art by Ub Iwerks and Win Smith. Beginning with the May 5, 1930 installment the art chores were taken up by Floyd Gottfredson (often aided by various inkers), who also either wrote or supervised the story continuities (relying on various writers to flesh out his plots). Gottfredson continued with the strip until 1975. A Sunday strip started January 10, 1932 with a topper Silly Symphony strip.
Silly Symphony initially related the adventures of Bucky Bug, the first Disney character to originate in the comics. It subsequently printed adaptations of some of the Symphony cartoons, several extended periods of stories involving Pluto and Little Hiawatha along with adaptations of Snow White and Pinocchio. By late 1935 the strip was a standalone half-page, not strictly a topper for the Mickey Sunday.
The Silly Symphony strip included the following stories: 
- Bucky Bug (Jan 10, 1932 - March 4, 1934)
- Birds of a Feather (March 11 - June 17, 1934)
- Peculiar Penguins (July 1 - Sept 9, 1934)
- The Little Red Hen (Sept 16 - Dec 16, 1934)
- The Boarding School Mystery (Dec 23, 1934 - Feb 17, 1935)
- Ambrose the Robber Kitten (Feb 24 - April 21, 1935)
- Cookieland (April 28 - July 21, 1935)
- Three Little Kittens (July 28 - Oct 20, 1935)
- The Life and Adventures of Elmer the Elephant (Oct 27, 1935 - Jan 12, 1936)
- Further Adventures of the Three Little Pigs (Jan 19 - Aug 23, 1936)
- Donald Duck (Aug 30, 1936 - Dec 5, 1937)
- Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (Dec 12, 1937 - April 24, 1938)
- Practical Pig (May 1 - Aug 7, 1938)
- Mother Pluto (Aug 14 - Oct 16, 1938)
- Farmyard Symphony (Oct 23 - Nov 27, 1938)
- Timid Elmer (Dec 4, 1938 - Feb 12, 1939)
- Pluto the Pup (Feb 19 - March 19, 1939)
- The Ugly Duckling (March 26 - April 16, 1939)
- Pluto the Pup (April 23 - Dec 17, 1939)
- Pinocchio (Dec 24, 1939 - April 7, 1940)
- Pluto the Pup (April 14 - Nov 3, 1940)
- Little Hiawatha (Nov 10, 1940 - July 12, 1942)
Donald Duck made his first comics appearance in the Silly Symphony adaptation of the 1934 Disney short The Wise Little Hen (Sept. 16, 1934-Dec. 16, 1934). As Donald's popularity grew, he became the star of the Silly Symphony strip for an extended run (August 1936 to December 1937), and then got his own daily strip starting on February 7, 1938. A Donald Sunday strip premiered December 10, 1939. Carl Barks, known to fans as "The Duck Man," wrote at least 20 of the strips between 1938 and 1940. Donald Duck ran until May 2005, when it went into reprints.
An oddity is in the 1930s a Disney strip was done seemingly outside the purview of the Strip Dept. for a national audience. It was created by Fred Spencer, an animator at the studio. Entitled "Mickey Mouse Chapter", it appeared in the International DeMolay Cordon the monthly newsletter of Demolay beginning with its Dec. 1932 issue through May 1933 (except March 1933). This was a two tier black and white strip depicting happenings in the Demolay Chapter formed by Mickey and his barnyard friends. Spencer and Walt Disney were both members of Demolay. While the last installment promised the series would return in the Sept. 1933 issue without explanation it did not. The extant installments have been reprinted as part of the first volume of Sunday Mickey Mouse comic strips by Floyd Gottfredson published in 2013 by Fantagraphics.
The Silly Symphony Sunday-only strip ended July 12, 1942. This was replaced with an adaptation of Bambi, and then a José Carioca Sunday only strip and a Panchito strip, until it in turn was replaced by Uncle Remus and His Tales of Br'er Rabbit. The Uncle Remus strip began, like the others, as a topper for the Mickey Mouse strip, but after the first few years, almost always appeared on its own. The strip lasted until th end of 1972.
- Bambi (July 19 - Oct 4, 1942)
- José Carioca (Oct 11, 1942 - Oct 1, 1944)
- Panchito (Oct 8, 1944 - Oct 7, 1945)
- Uncle Remus and His Tales of Br'er Rabbit (Oct 14, 1945 - Dec 31, 1972)
Initially Floyd Gottfredson along with his responsibilities for the Mickey comic strip oversaw the Disney comic strip department from 1930 to 1945, then Frank Reilly was brought in to administer the burgeoning department from January 1946 to 1975. Greg Crosby headed the department from 1979 to 1989.
Besides the strips described above the other Disney strips distributed over the years included (chronologically by start date):
- Merry Menagerie [humorous daily panel featuring anthropomorphic animals, but no Disney characters] (Jan. 13, 1947-March 17, 1962).
- Treasury of Classic Tales [Sunday only] (July 13, 1952-Feb. 15, 1987)
- True Life Adventures [daily panel] (March 14, 1955 – February 27, 1973)
- Scamp (October 31, 1955 – June 19, 1988)
- Mickey Mouse and His Friends [pantomime aimed at an international audience] (September 1, 1958 – March 17, 1962).
- Winnie the Pooh (June 19, 1978 – April 2, 1988)
- Gummi Bears (Sept. 1, 1986–April 1, 1989) 
For the first eight months Scamp had continuity and was written by Ward Greene, the King Features editor whose short story and novelization contributed to the development of the storyline for Lady and the Tramp. Advance publicity for the strip noted Greene's participation and the strip carried the byline "By Ward Greene". Disney historian Jim Fanning notes Scamp likely is "the only strip written by the original author of the work from which it sprang".
Sunday strips adapting Cinderella and Alice in Wonderland were distributed as stand-alone specials in 1950 and 1951 respectively. The following year the Sunday adaptations of Disney films began being issued under the title Treasury of Classic Tales as part of an ongoing strip.
Beginning in 1960 a special daily strip with a holiday theme utilizing the Disney characters was offered each year through 1987. It generally ran for three weeks with the concluding strip appearing on December 25, often promoting the latest Disney release or re-release. These were unique in that they in some cases showcased the crossover of Disney characters that otherwise rarely interacted (e.g. the Big Bad Wolf and the fairies from Sleeping Beauty). The tradition was revived in the mid-1990s to publicize contemporary Disney feature animated films: Beauty and the Beast (1992), Aladdin (1993), The Lion King (1994), Pocahontas (1995), Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996) and The Little Mermaid (for its re-release, 1997). Newspaper Enterprise Association offered a similar holiday themed special stripfrom 1936 to 2010.
The following writers and artists worked on the Disney comic strips:
- Donald Duck: written by Bob Karp; art by Al Taliaferro, Frank Grundeen, Al Hubbard, Kay Wright, Ellis Eringer, Daan Jippes, Tony Strobl, Larry Mayer, Jim Franzen, Ulrich Schroder, Jorgen Klubien, Bill Langley, Pete Alvarado, Frank Smith and Larry Knighton.
- Gummi Bears: art by Rick Hoover.
- Jose Carioca: art by Paul Murry.
- Merry Menagerie: written by Bob Karp; art by Bob Grant.
- Mickey Mouse: written by Floyd Gottfredson, Merrill De Maris, Ted Osborne, Bill Walsh and Floyd Norman; art by Floyd Gottfredson, Roman Arambula, Rick Hoover, Alex Howell, Manuel Gonzales, Bill Wright, Ted Thwaites, Carson Van Osten, Daan Jippes, Larry Mayer and Jim Engel.
- Mickey Mouse and His Friends: written by Milt Banta and Roy Williams; art by Ken Hultgren and Julius Svendsen.
- Scamp: art by John Ushler and Larry Mayer.
- Treasury of Classic Tales: written by Carl Fallberg and Frank Reilly; art by Floyd Gottfredson, John Ushler, Julius Svendsen and Jesse Marsh.
- True Life Adventures: written by Dick Huemer, art by George Wheeler.
- Uncle Remus: written by Bill Walsh, George Stallings and Jack Boyd; art by Bill Wright, Riley Thomson, Chuck Fuson, John Ushler, Dick Moores, Paul Murry
- Winnie the Pooh: written by Don Ferguson; art by Larry Mayer and Richard Moore.
Norman, in an article, listed the writers working in the comic strip department in the 1980s and mentions Cal Howard, Del Connell, Bill Berg (Donald Duck, Scamps), Don Ferguson, Tom Yakutis and Bob Foster and notes that their boss, Greg Crosby, had gotten his start as a writer for the strips before moving into management.
The Disney comic strip department closed in January 1990. The last two strips, Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck, continued to be supervised by King Features. The Donald strip was drawn by Larry Knighton with King Features staffers writing it. The Donald strip was discontinued in the mid-1990s. In this period the Mickey strip had Floyd Norman as the writer and art rotating between Rick Hoover and Alex Howell. Norman convinced the syndicate to allow him to drop the gag-a-day format in favor of adventure continuities of up to four weeks, much in the style of the classic Gottfredson era. By 1994 the strip was running in only 30 newspapers and by mutual agreement of Disney and King Features it ended. Both strips continued with reprints.
Currently reprints of Merrie Menagerie are a regular feature of Disney Newsreel, a bi-weekly magazine for Disney employees in Southern California. Disney's fan-oriented website D23 daily posts an installment of the Scamp strip with links to an extensive archives of past installments (which includes the Mickey and Donald strip). Among the regular features of the quarterly Disney Twenty-Three magazine for D23 members is "The Funny Pages", a section reprinting classic Disney comics strips.
In recent years Creators Syndicate has offered reprints of the Donald Duck, Mickey Mouse and Winnie the Pooh strips as part of a "classics" package and posts the current strip on its site (without archiving).Domestically the strips have 20-30 clients at any one time; they also appear in many newspapers outside the United States (exact number unknown).